English Presentation

Title                 : Modern Sociological Theory
Author             : George Ritzer
CHAPTER      :  A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Early Years
Subtitle            :
  1. 1.      Social Forces in the Development of Sociological Theory

·         Q: What social forces in the development of sociological theory?
·         A: All intellectual fields are profoundly shaped by their social settings. And Modern Sociological Theory books just focus on a few of the most important social conditions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


v  Political Revolutions
Political Revolutions were ushered in by the French Revolutions in 1789.

v  The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism
The Industrial Revolution happen when large number of people left farms and agricultural work for the industrial occupations offered in the burgeoning factories. Capitalism arises because there’s a large economic bureaucracy, which serves to provide the many services needed by industry.

v  The Rise of Socialism
Socialism is one set of changes aimed at against of the industrial system and capitalism. Socialism, a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.

v  Feminism
Feminism, The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes or in feminist perspective. Women had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they could not vote or hold any political office. They were considered "passive" citizens; forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them in the government. But, when the Revolution opened, some women struck forcefully, using the volatile political climate to assert their active natures.

v  Urbanization
Urbanization as a result of the Industrial Revolution, large number of people in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were uprooted from their rural homes and moved to urban settings. This massive migration was caused, in large part, by the jobs created by the industrial system in the urban areas.

v  Religious Change
Social changes brought on by political revolutions, the industrial revolution, and urbanization had a profound effect on religiosity. In pre-Revolutionary France there isn’t aspirations for freedom of religion.


  1. 2.      Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory

·         Q: What Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory?
·         A: Although social factors are important, the primary focus is the intellectual forces that played a central role in shaping sociological theory. In the real world, intellectual factors cannot be separated from social forces. The many intellectual forces that shaped the development of social theories are discussed within the national context where their influence was primarily felt. This Book begins with the enlightenment and its influences on the development of sociological theory in France.

The Enlightenment was a period of remarkable intellectual development and change in philosophical thought, for example French classical sociological Theory, like Marx’s theory which social contradictions in society in the form of class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority (the bourgeoisie) who own the means of production, and the vast majority of the population (the proletariat) who produce goods and services.

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